Lubutsk hill-fort (Kaluga region) - the traces of the chronicle town of the same name of 14-15 ss. - located on the small Lubutka-river (right shore of the Oka-river). It's dwelling area has a powerful defenses: the mound (height up to 6 m) and the moat (depth up to 5 m). There is a vast settlement joined to the hill-fort from the south. Lubutskay archaeological expedition under the leadership of Igor Vjacheslavovich Boldin was created in 1995 y. Since archaeological excavations of the town became systematic.

 

Chronicle history of the town.

The first information about Lubutsk belongs to 1372 y. It was the place, where Lithuanian prince Olgerd together with Mickle Tverskoy marched against the Great prince Dmitry.

That times upper reaches of Oka-river were the territory, which both Moscow and Lithuania pretended.

Practically all it's history Lubutsk have been under a domination of Lithuania, except a shot period after peaceful treaty of 1408 y., when Lubutsk became a part of Moscow principality. Nevertheless chronicles haven't contain any traces of direct contacts between Lubutsk and Lithuania, as well as information about inner life of the town.

Lubutsk was situated on the eastern boundary of Lithuanian principality, that is why it carry out a role of frontier fortress. Chronicles contain a lot of mentions about a military history of the town.

Moscow was successful in it's struggle for joining west-russian areas. In spite of resistance of townmen, in the beginning of 16 s. Lubutsk finally became a part of Moscow state. Because of widening of state frontiers Lubutsk loses gradually it's strategic importance as a fortress. This is the reason of it's desolation. Starting with 1566 y. Lubutsk is mentioned as a "hill-fort".

 

 

Archaeological researches.

Starting with 1995 y. Museum of Local Lore of Kaluga began to carry out a program of systematic archaeological excavations. The program is calculated for 30 years. It's realization allow to collect facts for reconstruction social being of Lubutsk and fill up knowledge of town culture of 14-15 s. at all.

Beginning with 1995 y. 408 sq. m of cultural layer have been researched. As a result a vast archaeological material has got: complexes of artifacts, traces of buildings both economical and dwelling (semi-dugout and ground).

The most interesting object is the cellar of the dwelling building (2-nd half of 15-th s.) with a stout layer of fire. Among burned planks and charcoal where was mass of burned clay. It were traces of stove fell heavily in the cellar while fire. Afterwards 4 clay walls (height approximately 0,5 m) were built on this very burned layer. In spite of being made of raw clay mixed with cultural layer safety of walls is striking. Among finds connected with the building 2 eastern coins of 14-th s. and some fragments of earthenware related with Gold Horde.

Archaeological researches will help to reconstruct historical topography of Lubutsk and fill up our knowledge in history and culture of the region in general.

Finds.

Beginning with 1995 y. a lot of finds were obtained. The collection of goods gave a general idea of a mode of life and social being of the inhabitants of Lubutsk; trade, commerce, military, worship and cultural spheres of the life of the chronicle town.